HISTORY OF THE HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL SERVICE OF KAZAKHSTAN
Prerevolutionary period. The first meteorological observations on the territory of Kazakhstan began in the mid-NINETEENTH century and were recorded at the Kazalinsk station in 1848, Semipalatinsk in 1854, Irgiz and Kzyl-Orda stations in 1856, Alma-ATA and Uralsk in 1859. By the beginning of the twentieth century, there were 28 stations in operation.
Observations were made on primitive equipment and only for air temperature, precipitation and wind. The staff was untrained, mostly part-time employees and volunteer correspondents of the main physical Observatory (GFO) of St. Petersburg worked at the stations. In Semipalatinsk, for example, the first observations were made by the pharmacist of the pharmacy A. G. Anikeev, in Irgiz – by the head of the hospital Dr. Vitkevich, later – by the non – commissioned officer Genschaft. At other weather stations, according to the Chronicles of the GFO, the first observers are teachers, students, doctors, foresters, clerks, and other representatives of the intelligentsia of that time.
The network of meteorological stations on the territory of Kazakhstan developed very slowly in the pre-revolutionary period. In 62 years (from 1854 to 1918), the meteorological network grew to just 43 weather stations. The Yekaterinburg Observatory managed the meteorological network of that time.
Hydrological observations in Kazakhstan developed even more slowly. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only 4 observation points above the water level were operating on the territory of Kazakhstan, and then on one water body – the Irtysh river. Before the October period, the number of hydrological posts was 25, of which only one functioned as an expenditure post.
Aerological and agrometeorological observations were not made at that time. Operational hydrometeorological authorities also did not exist.
Post-revolutionary period. Only after the great October socialist revolution are new opportunities created for the development of the hydrometeorological service. However, in the first years of Soviet power (1917-1920), the young Soviet Republic, engaged in the fight against internal and external counter-revolution, could not pay enough attention to the organization of the Hydrometeorological service. Like all the national economy, the hydrometeorological service was in severe decline. There were not enough funds to maintain the network, and the methodological guidance provided by The main physical and Yekaterinburg observatories was violated. Most of the workers were conscripted into the army to defend the gains of October. It was during this difficult period for the young Soviet Republic that Vladimir Ilyich Lenin set before scientists and practitioners the task of streamlining and developing Hydrometeorology in Russia.
Already in 1919, a decree was signed on the organization of the Russian Hydrological Institute. Signed on June 21, 1921 by V. I. Lenin, The decree of the Council of people's Commissars "On the organization of meteorological Affairs in the RSFSR" marked the beginning of the development of the Soviet hydrometeorological service.
In January 1922, the Kazakhstan meteorological Bureau (Kazmetbyuro) was established in Orenburg. At this time, the meteorological network is managed by the meteorological Bureau of the people's Commissariat of the Republic, and the hydrological network is managed by the water management Department. Most of the network continues to be managed by various agencies. With the formation of the Kazakh Autonomous Republic in January 1925, The people's Commissariat of the Kazakh ASSR was organized.
By the end of 1925, new weather stations were opened and agrometeorological observations were resumed. The beginning of aerological observations dates back to this time, when balloon - pilot observations were organized at the Guryev weather station, and a little later-at the Alma-ATA and Semipalatinsk weather stations.
By 1929, the network of meteorological stations in Kazakhstan was successfully restored to its pre-war extent and expanded. By this time, there were 96 of them.
Crucial in the development of the Hydrometeorological service of the USSR, including Kazakhstan, was played by the Decree of the CEC of the USSR from August 7, 1929 on the creation of the territory of the Soviet Union, a Hydrometeorological service and its governing body - the Hydrometeorological Committee at SNK the USSR.
In 1930, the Hydrometeorological Committee (GIMEK) was established in Kazakhstan on the basis of the meteorological Bureau of the people's Commissariat of land and the hydrological Bureau of Kazvodkhoz. At that time, Professor V. V. Kellerman was in charge of GIMEK. he also headed The hydrometeorological Institute (GIMEIN), which was later reorganized into the Alma-ATA geophysical Observatory.
The first Chairman of the Hydrometeorological Committee of the Kazakh ASSR was appointed a well – known public and political figure of Kazakhstan Jandosov Uraz Kikimovich
May 9, 1933 Kazhimukan was reorganized into the Kazakh Management of Unified Hydrometeorological service (CASUALS), which in April 1937 was renamed first the Almaty Office, and in 1940 - in the Kazakh Department of hydrometeorological service (CASPS). In October 1938, Ivan Fedorovich porfiryev, who headed the early Upper-Volga hydrometeorological service Department, was appointed head of the Alma - ATA hydrometeorological service Department. Ivan Fedorovich worked in his post for 32 years. He was a skilful leader, a competent specialist, and a person worthy of respect.
In the early 30s, 102 hydrological posts and about 2 dozen weather stations were transferred to Gimekom by other departments. Along with the opening of stations and posts in localities, the construction of desert stations began during this period. In 1930, the first desert weather station in Kurta was opened. In 1934, the desert weather stations Naiman-SUEK and Algazy were opened, and later-Bayrkum, Bektau-ATA, Betpak - Dala.
Along with the development of the meteorological network, the method of radiological sensing of the atmosphere was developed during this period. The world's first radiosonde was released in Leningrad on January 30, 1930 by the Soviet scientist – Professor P. A. Molchanov.
In Kazakhstan, the first radiosonde was released in 1936 in Alma-ATA by a group of aerologists led by P. G. fast, and by the end of the 30s, up to 20 balloon pilot points were already operating.
Since 1935, agrometeorological observations have already been carried out at 11 meteorological stations in Kazakhstan.in 1936, the number of weather stations with agrometeorological observations doubled, and instrumental soil moisture measurements were organized at 5 weather stations. Specialized agrometeorological stations began to be organized in 1938.
At this time, the issue of organizing operational bodies and organizing hydrometeorological support for the national economy became acute.
In 1932, the Alma-ATA weather Bureau was organized and in the same year, the compilation of SYNOPTIC maps and weather forecasts for the city of Alma-ATA and the airport's air routes began. The first SYNOPTIC map and the first weather forecast were compiled in December 1932 by the head Of the weather Bureau, M. D. Ponomarev. by 1940, he, together with other forecasters, began compiling three-day weather forecasts.
In 1940, there were already 210 meteorological stations, 175 hydrological posts, 20 aerological points conducting balloon-pilot observations, and one radiosonding point. Agrometeorological observations were carried out at 89 weather stations, including instrumental determination of soil moisture at 23 weather stations.
The first short - term hydrological forecasts in Kazakhstan were issued by G. R. Yunusov in 1936 on the Irtysh river, and long-term forecasts were issued by him in 1940.
From January 1935 CASUES the beginning of the regular edition of the ten-day agrometeorological Bulletin.
The rapid development of air transport demanded the accelerated development of the network of AEROMETEOROLOGICAL stations (AMSG). The first amsgs in Kazakhstan were organized in Alma-ATA and Kostanay in 1933, in Karaganda, Semipalatinsk, Aktyubinsk and Dzhambul – in 1934-1936, and by 1940 there were already 13 of them.
In parallel with the organization of the AMSG, operational bodies were created to serve other leading sectors of the national economy. For this purpose, in 1936, regional hydrometeorological departments were organized: Aktobe, Votochno-Kazakhstan, West Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kustanay, North Kazakhstan, South Kazakhstan and Alma-ATA.
The war years. The Patriotic war delayed the development of the hydrometeorological service for several years. Hydrometeorologists of Kazakhstan made a significant contribution to the victory over Nazi Germany.
Weather services provided for the needs of the Armed Forces of the Air Force and the Navy. The network of ground-based observations at the stations was the only source of information about the state of the atmosphere and water bodies. The network of radiosonde stations was in the process of development. The radiosondes rose only 7-10 km. Aircraft sounding to a height of 2-3 km and balloon-pilot observations were of great importance. Therefore, it was decided to fully militarize the entire civil hydrometeorological service.
In July 1941, Main Directorate of Hydrometeorological service (GPMS) with all its subdivisions were included in the Armed forces of the USSR and only a small part of the Service – Agrometeorological control and the corresponding agro-meteorological stations and departments in national and local offices were excluded from the number of HUGS and handed over to the people's Commissariat of agriculture of the USSR.
Head HUGS E. K. Fedorov was directly subordinated to the chief of the General staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR.
In September 1941, the Kazakh Department of Hydrometeorological service was transferred to the Central Asian Military district (SAVO) and became known as the Kazakh Department of hydrometeorological service SAVO.